In the 1990s when I first started using revision control, it was a major, major pain in the arse. Making a tarball snapshot of the project directory with a date-stamp was better! In 2005 when I started Sage, I didn't know any better, and didn't both with revision control for the first year. In 2006, Gonzalo Tornaria told me that things had improved, and got me to use Darcs. That lasted just over a year, when I switched Sage to use Mercurial. The switch was due to major headaches installing Darcs (a Haskell program), and Darcs hanging when our repo got too big and complicated.
We are fortunate that today many difficult problems and design decisions for revision control have been addressed through lots of work. Revision control is amazingly good now compared to what it was 15 years ago!
Some milestones: RCS, CVS, Subversion, Bitkeeper & Monotone, Darcs, Git/Mercurial/Bazaar
A reference: see the Mercurial guide.
Getting started with MercurialIn sage we use "hg" = (Mercurial). Why?
- Because I chose it in early 2007, when Darcs started sucking too much
- Distributed is the way to go these days. (Modern)
- Bazaar far too unstable in 2007, to put it mildly. Bazaar is by the people who made Ubuntu, and is much more stable today.
- GIT badly documented, too hard to setup, etc... back in 2007; again, git is much better today.
---> so Mercurial was the only reasonable choice then. It was just "good enough" at the time that we could survive. Hence Mercurial.
Mercurial comes with Sage, and you can use it like so:
- "sage -hg"
- sage: install_scripts command
- sage: hg_sage.[tab]
- Or Install: easy to install standalone on OS X, Linux, and Windows.
- You can do "$ sudo easy_install mercurial" to install systemwide the latest version into your default system wide Python. It will probably appear in /usr/local/bin/hg
Documentation for hg:
If you create your own HG projects, you can easily host them on Google Code (and also http://bitbucket.org/).
I'm doing this a lot lately with smaller projects, including:
- Purple Sage
- Sage Notebook
- Other systems. Google code only does HG and Subversion.
But there are also similar hosting services for git and bazaar:
- github -- free hosting for git projects
- Bazaar's Launchpad
- Sourceforge: The first major free hosting site I heard of is sourceforge.net, which offers hosting for all sorts of repos, including mercurial. It is more general, but not as "clean and focused" in abilities as the above, e.g., their mailing lists are often plagued by spam, and I seem to recall a lot of banner ads.
These hosting services are a very popular and fairly new thing (but not too new); all but sourceforge became popular well after I started Sage. They provide much, much more than just what the revision control systems do; they are more than just a place to host your code repository. They all provide:
- code hosting (of course)
- bug tracking
- code review
- mailing lists, wiki's, etc.
Sage isn't hosted on one of these probably because they are so new, and Sage is older. This may change. Also, Sage is really, really big (Google code has a 2GB limit).
Main point: if you want to start a small project with a small number of other people -- example, writing a research paper and some corresponding code -- you can in seconds easily get the full suite of hosting, bug tracking, code review, etc., totally for free, backed up, high quality, etc. Obviously, you are trusting your data to either Google, Github, or Canonical, but you can easily backup most of it (e.g., the repos, mailing lists).
They want you to use them: "431,000 people hosting over 1,330,000 git repositories" (from github)
Story: In 2006, when I came to UW, Randy Leveque (a professor in applied math) found out about me running the Sage project, and wanted to know how to get Mercurial, Wiki's, trac, etc., setup, so that he could organize his software development project(s). I explained some basics, and I think he and his students setup various project infrastructure, and ran into assorted troubles. Today, I would just say "http://code.google.com" (or github, etc.) and be done with it! And Randy would be up and running with more tools than before in a matter of minutes.
Command line mercurial
The main point of the rest of this lecture will be about how to use Mercurial. It's very hard to beat the official Mercurial Quickstart, which we'll just go over together in class:
See the Mercurial Quickstart.
- Make a directory in your computer be under revision control
- Setup your .hgrc file, if you haven't already.
- Try cloning a remote repository, e.g., purple sage
- Try committing a change that spans multiple files, so you can see that all the changes are together. Then view the commit via "hg serve -p 8200".
WARNING: on OS X with the sage-included hg, this "hg serve" crashed for me with "Trace/BPT trap" when I visited http://localhost:8200. I opened trac ticket 10171.
So I did "sudo easy_install mercurial" to get a new version systemwide, and now this works for me: "/usr/local/bin/hg serve -p 8200"
A future blog post may cover more advanced HG topics, including branching, cloning, queues, and bundles.